Four Ways to Create Objects in JavaScript

In JavaScript, there are four methods to use to create an object:

  1. Object literals
  2. New operator or constructor
  3. Object.create method
  4. Class

In this post, we will learn each of these methods.

Object literals

An object literal, also called an object initializer, is a comma-separated set of paired names and values. You can create an object literal as shown below:

You can add properties dynamically in an object, including after you have created the object. Here we add the dynamic property car.type:

The object literal is a simple expression that creates an object each time the statement that it appears in is executed in the code. You can also use Object.defineProperty to create properties in the object literal as shown below:

The main advantage of using Object.defineProperty is that you can set values for object property descriptors or modify existing properties. You can learn more about Object Property Descriptor here.

New Operator or Constructor

The second way to create an object is to use the constructor function. If you call a function using a new operator, the function acts as a constructor and returns an object. Consider the following code:

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How to print or enumerate properties of a JavaScript object?

I usually come across the following requirements,

  • How to print name of all the properties of an object?
  • How to print only the methods of an object?
  • How to print even non-enumerable properties of an object?

In this post, we will explore all the options to iterate and print properties of a JavaScript object. Let us consider the object cat, as shown in the listing below:

By default, for all properties of an object enumerable is set to true. So right now, if we print description of cat’s canRun and name properties using the Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor, we will find enumerable value true for the both properties.

As you notice besides enumerable, configurable and writable are also set to true.


Let us start with printing all properties which enumerable is true.

Printing all enumerable properties using loop

We can print all enumerable properties either own or inherited of cat object using JavaScript loop.

Using the loop, all enumerable properties can be iterated. Above for loop will print all the enumerable properties of cat object.

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Simplifying Objects, Inheritance and prototype in JavaScript

Although JavaScript is a Class-Free language, it supports objects creation, overriding properties/methods and inheritance. In this post, we will explore the concepts of object creation and inheritance.

In JavaScript, Objects can be created in three possible ways:

  1. An object as literal
  2. Using the function constructor
  3. Using the Object.Create method

Object as literal

A simple object Student – as an object literal – can be created as shown in the listing below:

var Student = {

    name: "dj",
    age: 32,
    Father: {
        'name': 'Ram',
        'occupation': 'service'
    Subjects: [{

        name: "Physics",
        marks: 89

	    name: "Chemistry",
	    marks: 95

Above we have created an object called Student. There are three types of properties attached to Student: simple properties like name and age, complex properties like “Father”, and an array property called Subjects. We can read properties as shown in the listing below:


for (var i in Student.Subjects) {

We can also have a function serve as the property of an object, which is known as the method. So let’s say we want to attach a method “Speak” to the Student object.  We can add the Speak method as shown in the listing below.

var Student = {

    name: "dj",
    age: 32,


Student.Speak = function (message) {

    var finalMessage = + " has said :" + message;

Student.Speak("I am the best");

On calling Speak function as method, we will get output as shown in the image below:

There are some important points about the Speak method to remember:

  1. Properties can be added to an object at any time; a property can be added to an object after its creation too. For example, we added the Speak property later to Student object, rather than at the time of object creation.
  2. In the object’s method, the object is defined by value “this”. That is why we are able to print the name of the Student using in the method.
  3. Calling a function as method is known as “Method Invocation Pattern”

In the above example, we are calling the Speak method on the object “Student”. So the value ofthis inside the Speak method is the Student object.

If we want to pass some other object as the value of “this” in the method, we can use the apply or call function. For example, we have one more object called Parents and,

  1. We are calling the Speak method of the Student object directly and the value of “this” in the Speak method would be Student.
  2. We are passing Parent as the value of “this” in the Student object’s Speak method. We are using the apply function to call the Student object’s Speak method and passing the Parent object as the value of this.

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