To understand @HostListener and @HostBinding, you should have basic knowledge about directives in Angular. There are three types of directives in Angular:
- Attribute Directive
- Structural Directive
The basic difference between a component and a directive is that a component has a template, whereas an attribute or structural directive does not have a template. To understand these two concepts, let us start by creating a simple custom attribute directive. The directive below changes the background color of the host element:
To create a custom attribute directive, you need to create a class and decorate it with @Directive. In the constructor of the directive class, inject the objects ElementRef and Renderer. Instances of these two classes are needed to get the reference of the host element and of the renderer.
You can use the above attribute directive on a component template as shown in the listing below:
Here, the component class holding the host element is created as below:
Right now, the appChbgcolor directive will change the color of the host element.
In Angular, the @HostListener() function decorator allows you to handle events of the host element in the directive class.
Let’s take the following requirement: when you hover mouse on the host element, only the color of the host element should change. In addition, when the mouse is gone, the color of the host element should change to its default color. To do this, you need to handle events raised on the host element in the directive class. In Angular, you do this using @HostListener() .
To understand @HostListener() in a better way, consider another simple scenario: on the click of the host element, you want to show an alert window. To do this in the directive class, add @HostListener() and pass the event ‘click’ to it. Also, associate a function to raise an alert as shown in the listing below: