Make all properties optional using Partial in TypeScript

The utility type Partial<Type> makes all properties of a type optional.

Using a scenario, let us try to understand Partial<T> in TypeScript. So, you have a type called Product, that is created as below:

  export interface Product {
  Id: string;
  Title: string;
  Price: number;
  inStock: boolean;
  Quantity: number;

And there is a function to update the price of a product as shown below:

updatePrice(p: Product, updatedProduct: Product){
  // Implementation

To use the updatePrice function, you pass two objects of the type Product,


  let product: Product = {
    Id: "1",
    Title: "Pen",
    inStock: true,
    Price: 300,
    Quantity: 20


  let productToUpdate: Product = {
    Id: "1",
    Title: "Pen",
    inStock: true,
    Price: 3000,
    Quantity: 20

  this.updatePrice(product, productToUpdate);


So far, this implementation looks fine. However, in the real scenario, to update the price of a product, you don’t necessarily have to create an object with value for all the fields of the Product. Ideally, you should only need ID and Price to update the price of a product, as shown below,

this.updatePrice(product, { Id: "1", Price: 3000 });

If you try to do so, clearly, TypeScript complains about the above code saying,

Argument of type ‘{ Id: string; Price: number; }’ is not assignable to parameter of type ‘Product’.

Now how could we fix it? There are three possible ways you can fix it.

  1. Change the type of updateProduct to any in the updatePrice function. But it is not suggestive because we must avoid using any as much as possible.
  2. Make fields optional in the Product type. Again, it is not a good idea.
  3. Use Partial type.

Let us modify updatePrice to use Partial type as shown below:

updatePrice(p: Product, updatedProduct: Partial<Product>){
  // Implementation

Now you can call the updatePrice function with just Id and Price fields, and TypeScript does not complain about that.

this.updatePrice(product, { Id: "1", Price: 3000 });

Partial<T> constructs a type with all properties of Type set to optional. This utility will return a type that represents all subsets of a given type.

In the TypeScript, Partial<T> is implemented as below; it makes properties optional.

type Partial<T> = {
  [P in keyof T]?: T[P];

In summary, whenever you need to make all properties optional, use the Partial<T> type. I hope you find this post helpful. Thanks for reading.

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